Enhancing crop salt tolerance is a sensible strategy to achieve significant increases in crop yields, but requires a deep understanding of the underlying mechanisms. When challenged by salinity, all plants, regardless of their degree of tolerance, activate a series of basic responses, including the control of ion transport, the synthesis of compatible solutes for osmotic adjustment, or the activation of antioxidant systems.
Yet, for a given species, the biological relevance and the relative contribution of different responses to the mechanisms of salt tolerance remain largely unknown. Over tschanz swiss distribution anti aging last years, we have performed comparative analyses on the responses to salinity in different taxa, genetically related but with varying levels of tolerance.
Correlating salt-induced changes in the concentrations of suitable biochemical stress markers with the relative tolerance of the investigated species, we are obtaining novel and interesting information on those mechanisms.
Some examples with taxa of several genera are discussed, to show the usefulness of our approach. Key words: climate change, ion transport, osmolytes, salt stress, salt tolerance.
These cultivars weather patterns — crops in arid and semi-arid were developed for a high-input, industrialised regions are being affected by drought periods agriculture and can provide high yields under which are longer, more frequent and more optimal — artificial — growing conditions, in intense than in the near past. In fact, for all present production levels is becoming a severe major crops there is a large difference between challenge for agriculture.
The application to crops of continues, soon this will not be true anymore. As improve the quality of the harvested product water for irrigation is becoming an increasingly Boscaiu et al. Also, there is an urgent need contribute to improving crop yields, but the to switch the present agricultural practices to a expected increase in food production will not more sustainable agriculture, stopping or be sufficient to cope with population growth.
For this, all available sustainable.
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This approach transgenic crops, including the development has not been very successful in the past, due to of varieties with new traits, will also contribute the complexity of the stress-tolerance traits, but to increasing food production, as they provide now the breeder can use an array tschanz swiss distribution anti aging modern higher yields than the corresponding molecular tools — marker-assisted selection conventional crops ISAAA, Progress is also being proteins, LEA proteins, osmotin, and many made in the recovery and improvement of local others.
Furthermore, et al.
To reach this goal, applying the and drought tolerance in different plants, different strategies mentioned in the previous including some wild species, vegetable and paragraph, a deep understanding of the ornamental crops and forest trees, such as taxa mechanisms underlying abiotic stress tolerance of the genera Plantago, Juncus, Limonium, in plants is required.
Phaseolus, Tagetes, Portulaca or Picea, among others.
It is doubtful that the results mechanisms of tolerance in plants. Cl- ions accumulated in leaves in inhibition caused by the stress treatment — parallel with increasing external salinities, in allows establishing which specific responses all tested cultivars, and reaching in all cases are involved in each case in tolerance absolute levels much higher than those of mechanisms.
Proline Pro is one of 0 control50, or mM NaCl. After the the commonest plant osmolytes. Leaf Pro treatments, the plants were harvested, and contents increased in response to the salt several growth parameters were determined: treatment in the four Phaseolus cultivars, but stem length, number of leaves, leaf fresh and its accumulation showed a negative correlation dry weight, and leaf water content.
Of those tested, in the non-stressed control at all external salt only myo-inositol appears to be a functional concentrations tested.
However, both the absolute Three species of the genus Plantago, P. The two first species are in the three species. Therefore, even though halophytes, growing in natural saline sorbitol could be necessary for cellular osmotic ecosystems, whereas P. According to their differential accumulation of the osmolyte in the distribution in nature, the relative salt tolerance three analysed taxa.
Pro contents, on the other of these species is: P. Plants of the three increased in response to the salt treatment, but species were grown in the greenhouse for four only at high external salt concentrations weeks, watered with NaCl solutions of mM NaCl and, most important, only in the increasing concentration, from 0 control to halophytes, not in the salt-sensitive P. Quantification of the degree of salt- Therefore, salt tolerance in Plantago seems to induced growth inhibition confirmed the be partly dependent on the activation in tolerant relative tolerance to salinity indicated above, species but not in salt-sensitive ones of the for masaj pentru ridurile fruntii three analysed Plantago tschanz swiss distribution anti aging.
Contrary to Phaseolus, In this case, we also selected three species, two in this case, the highest ion contents were halophytes Juncus maritimus and J.
According in the most tolerant P. Salt transport of ions to the leaves. We also It is well established that sorbitol is the observed a concentration-dependent increase of functional osmolyte in the genus Plantago.
We observed a clear tschanz swiss distribution anti aging then increasing again in the presence of higher correlation between ion concentrations and salt external salt concentrations.
Therefore, salt tolerance in Juncus is halophytes of the genera Plantago P. Osmotic adjustment articulatus, respectively.
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Pro tschanz swiss distribution anti aging a the increase of Pro concentration with respect reliable marker of stress, accumulating to to the control, although statistically significant, higher levels on those taxa which are more was less than twofold. Therefore, Pro sensitive to stress and, therefore, more stressed accumulation is most likely involved in the at the same salinity levelsas compared to mechanisms of salt tolerance in Juncus, as it related more tolerant taxa.
However, Pro does correlates positively with the relative degree of not seem to be directly involved in salt tolerance of the investigated species.