The findings, published in Neurology, suggest that factors associated with low socioeconomic status --stress, poor diet and limited access to medical care, for example -- increase the prevalence of migraines in young people.
But for teens without a strong predisposition, reflected by the absence of migraine in first-degree relatives, family income factors into the prevalence of migraine, particularly among those teens whose families have low income. Bigal notes that this finding correlates with migraine prevalence for adults, which is consistently higher among people with lower income and less education. Socioeconomic position and health: the differential effects of education versus income on the onset versus progression of health problems.
J Health Soc Behav 48 3 The study appears in the September issue of the Journal of Health and Social Behavior and examines how health differences in the United States often relate to people's socioeconomic status.
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Herd and colleagues say education influences occupation, income and wealth and with higher education comes healthier behaviors, such as good diet, increased physical activity, reduced stress and better use of preventive and therapeutic healthcare. The authors used data collected from to mid in the "Americans' Changing Lives Study," which conducted four waves of interviews of adults who were 25 years old and older.
Herd and colleagues analyzed data for 8, participants. They looked at two groups of health problems: chronic conditions and functional limitations or disabilities. Compared with those with a college degree, the odds of having health problems were 81 percent higher for those without a high school diploma and 56 percent greater for those with a high school diploma. Although this prevalence is slightly lower than the Cigarette smoking prevalence rates varied substantially across population subgroups Table.
The prevalence of smoking was higher among men Duringthe gap in smoking prevalence between those living below the poverty line and those living at or above it increased from 8. By education level, smoking prevalence was highest among adults who had earned a General Educational Development diploma Women with undergraduate Duringthe largest decreases in smoking prevalence occurred among adults with a college degree During this period, the gap in smoking prevalence between adults who had graduated from college and those with less than a high school education increased from Similar patterns occurred in the percentage of ever smokers who had quit among different educational groups.
The percentage of ever smokers who had quit was highest for those with college degrees, followed by persons with some college education. High school graduates and those with less than high school education had the lowest percentage of ever smokers who had quit.
The gap between adults with a college degree and those with less than a high school education increased from Editorial Note: The findings in this report indicate that 1 the socioeconomic status of U. These findings underscore the republica naturii original power wrinkle eye cream for targeted interventions that can better reach persons of lower socioeconomic status.
Persons of low socioeconomic status have less access to health care than those of high socioeconomic status 3. To evaluate the lifetime prevalence of migraine and other headaches lasting 4 or more hours in a population-based study of older adults. Migraine and other headaches not fulfilling migraine criteria are common afflictions. Yet the health and social effects of these conditions have not been fully appreciated, particularly among older adults. Prevalence estimates republica naturii original power wrinkle eye cream a lifetime history of migraine and other headaches lasting 4 or more republica naturii original power wrinkle eye cream were obtained for race and gender groups.
A cross-sectional analysis was done to assess the relationship between headache type, by aura status, and various sociodemographic and health-related indices. Compared to education beyond high school, having completed less than 12 years of education was significantly associated with an increased occurrence of migraine with aura prevalence odds ratio [POR], 1.
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The prevalence odds ratio was higher in each headache category, particularly for those with an aura, for those with hypertension versus normotension and for those who perceived their general health as poor compared to those whose perception was excellent. A lifetime history of migraine with aura and other headaches with aura was more common among whites, women, and younger participants.
Further investigation of headaches lasting 4 or more hours, particularly by aura status, is warranted. Articles Neurology. Scher, A I. PhD; Terwindt, G M. PhD; Verschuren, W M. PhD Abstract: Background: Migraine, particularly with aura, is a risk factor for early-onset ischemic stroke. The underlying mechanisms are unknown, but may in part be due to migraineurs having an increased risk profile republica naturii original power wrinkle eye cream cardiovascular disease.
In this study, the authors compare the cardiovascular risk profile of adult migraineurs to that of nonmigraineurs. Controls were 5, individuals without lifetime migraine. Measured cardiovascular risk factors included blood pressure BPserum total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol TC, HDLsmoking, oral contraceptive use, and the Framingham risk score for myocardial infarction or coronary heart disease CHD death.
The odds of having an elevated Framingham risk score for CHD were approximately doubled for the migraineurs with aura. Conclusions: Migraineurs, particularly with aura, have a higher cardiovascular risk profile than individuals without migraine.
Presence of headaches, other chronic pain conditions, and chronic physical conditions was assessed in a structured interview administered by trained interviewers. Diagnostic criteria for migraine were based on the International Headache Society classification. Mental disorders were ascertained with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview that collected diagnostic criteria according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition.
Role disability was assessed with World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule questions about days out of role and days with impaired role functioning.
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Compared with headache-free subjects, migraineurs were at significantly increased risk for mental disorders odds ratio [OR] 3. Compared with headache-free subjects, persons with nonmigraine headache were also at significantly increased risk for mental disorders OR 2. Migraineurs experienced role disability on The history of headache can be traced almost to the beginning of the history of humankind.
The first description of headache dates back to the third millennium BCE. Headache has been written about extensively since the time of the Babylonian civilization. Migraine headache and hemicrania are discussed in the Bible. Some famous historical figures eg, Napoleon are known to have had terrible headaches. In individuals older than 12 years, the prevalence increases in both males and females, and the incidence declines in individuals older than 40 years, except for women in perimenopause.
The overall prevalence is higher in females than in males. The female-to-male ratio increases from 2. The incidence of migraine with aura peaks in boys at around age 5 years and in girls at around age years. The incidence of migraine without aura peaks in boys at age years and in girls at age years. The incidence of migraine in females of reproductive age has increased over the last 20 cum să aliniezi pliurile nazolabiale, probably due to more awareness of the condition.
In the United States, white women have the highest incidence of migraine, whereas Asian women have the lowest incidence. Moreover, low socioeconomic status is associated with migraine. Currently, 1 of 6 American women has migraine headaches. The risk of migraine is increased 4-fold in relatives of people who have migraine with aura. However, no genetic basis has been identified for common migraine, although it generally demonstrates a maternal inheritance pattern. Costul direct medical de ingrijire ba migrenei asha ca: a medicatia b vizita la republica naturii original power wrinkle eye cream 2.
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Acordarea medicatiei care previne migrena,daca folosirea ei ar fi dirijata ar putea reduce costul tratamentelor migrenei. Led by Dr. Marcelo Bigal, assistant professor of neurology, the Einstein researchers mailed a headache questionnaire tohouseholds encompassingresidents -- a sample representative of the U. More than 32, teens were identified in this sample, and more than half of them It is well known that heredity strongly influences whether someone will develop migraine headaches.
So when this study looked at teens whose parents suffered from migraines, the prevalence of teens suffering one or more migraines in the previous year was nearly the same in lower vs.
In the clinic. Ann Intern Med. Ebell MH. Diagnosis of migraine headache. Am Fam Physician. Does this patient with headache have a migraine or need neuroimaging? Classification of primary headaches. Headache and Facial Pain.
In: Goetz, CG. Textbook of Clinical Neurology. Louis, Mo: WB Saunders; chap. Herd said the results show this country's education policy must improve to reverse these types of disparities. Improving access to education can address numerous intermediary causes of poor health.
More 'action' is in who gets sick in the first place and right now the health system does relatively little in prevention.
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This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, inapproximately Duringadults with household incomes below the poverty level and those with less than some college education consistently had higher smoking prevalence. A comprehensive approach to smoking cessation that comprises educational, economic, clinical, and regulatory strategies and emphasizes reducing disparities is required to reduce further the prevalence of smoking 2.
Respondents were asked, "Have you smoked at least cigarettes in your entire life? Former smokers were defined as ever smokers who currently did not smoke. Data were adjusted for nonresponses and weighted to provide national estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence.
Inan estimated Among those who smoked every day, an estimated In addition, the percentage of ever smokers who had quit was higher for persons at or above the poverty level than for those below the poverty line. As with current smoking prevalence, this gap was larger in than in Educational attainment has been associated consistently with adult smoking prevalence since Figure 2.
Specific efforts to reduce socioeconomic disparities in smoking prevalence could include 1 offering comprehensive smoking cessation assistance through Medicaid and Medicare; 2 offer-ing smoking cessation advice and counseling through clinics that care for the uninsured; 3 increasing support for smoking cessation at work places, particularly for low-income and blue-collar workers; 4 implementing telephone quitlines in all states; and 5 employing more media-based cessation campaigns 2,4,5.
Expanding the scope of cessation coverage through Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurance and ensuring that persons without health insurance can obtain medical assistance to quit smoking is a key strategy to help low-income smokers quit 4.
The lower rates of quitting among blue-collar workers can be partially explained by the lack of social support for quitting in their work environments 5. Encouraging all employers to implement programs and policies supporting smoking cessation can help reduce consistently observed disparities in smoking prevalence between blue- and white-collar workers 6.
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In addition, because tobacco use prevalence is associated with failing or dropping out of high school 7school-based antismoking programs and policies should target younger students before they leave school 8,9. The U. Department of Health and Human Services recently announced a new initiative to increase access to telephone quitlines. Quitlines provide free counseling and have been shown to be effective in reaching low-income populations Media campaigns also have been shown to reach low-income smokers and increase cessation 4, The findings in this report are subject to at least two limitations.
Because of these changes, trend analyses or comparisons of data from before with data collected since should be interpreted with caution.
Second, because NHIS data for some population subgroups e. Combining data for several years can produce more accurate estimates for these subpopulations. National health objectives for focus on eliminating health disparities among population subgroups 1. Closing the gap in smoking prevalence among persons of different socioeconomic strata will require comprehensive tobacco- control programs that discourage smoking initiation and promote smoking cessation among members republica naturii original power wrinkle eye cream populations at high risk.
Comprehensive tobacco-control programs at local, state, and national levels must ensure that antirid barbati intervention efforts reach persons with inadequate resources and limited access to health care.
Such efforts should address the needs of the uninsured e. References 1. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People2nd ed. Washington, DC: U. Department of Health and Human Services, Reducing tobacco use: a report of the Surgeon General.
Atlanta, Georgia: U. Socioeconomic inequalities in health: no easy solution.