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This, she argues, is anti-imbatranire anon scansoft evidence that the dichotomizations of online community members as either lurkers or contributors is too simple to be theoretically useful.

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Newbies are the first of the four types. Newbies lack strong social ties to the group, and maintain only a superficial or passing interest in the consumption activity itself and have relatively weak abilities and skills.

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Minglers come next. They are the fraternizers of these communities, socializers who maintain strong personal ties with many members of the community but who are only superficially interested or drawn to the central consumption activity. Devotees reverse this emphasis: they have relatively shallow social ties with the members of the community, but maintain a focal interest in and enthusiasm for the consumption activity in the community, as well as refined skill and knowledge sets.

At the lower left diagonal is the much-recognized category of the Lurker, the active observer who anti-imbatranire anon scansoft anti-imbatranire anon scansoft a site through initially watching and reading.

The lurker has the potential, over time, to become a newbie, a neo or neophyte, a new member who is using the community to learn about the core consump tion activity or to reach out and build social relationships.

Lurkers feed into the community.

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We cannot actively observe their participation, but we can learn about them through other means, such as the electronic shadow trails they leave in cyberspace, and the retrospective reflections that people have of their own time as lurkers see Schlosser At the other extreme are those who have developed their social and consumptionfocused skills and connections to such a high level that they become central to the community or even form new communities of their own.

This diagonal stretches out from the top-right corner, reaching out from the category of the insider into the cat anti-imbatranire anon scansoft of the Maker. The other two diagonals reflect interrelationships with other kinds of communi ties, both online and off.

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The top—left diagonal depicts the interactor reaching into the community from other communities that are highly engaged with the consumption activity usually from in-person venues, or those that are primarily in-person with only peripheral use of CMC to keep members connected such as a football or book club that uses a mailing list to keep members in contact with one another. So, as an example, consider Star Trek fans that have local in—person fan clubs connecting to a few Star Trek—related online communities by offering consumption activity-related news, how-tos, or information to devotees, or engaging in devotee-like behaviours, in particular online communities.

The final diagonal is at the bottom-right of the diagram. Here, members of other communities, which the model terms Net workers, will reach into a particular online community in order to build social ties and interact with the members of that other community. Or it could come from a related community that seeks to link up and exchange ideas with, or even steal members from, that community. The point of the networker is to build ties between different online communities.

Generally speaking, a lurker has the potential to progress from newbie status to becoming an insider as anti-imbatranire anon scansoft gains social capital with the group and cultural capital with the core consumption activities in which it engages. Another, related, model considers the general trending and movement through these relational modes. As we have already noted, the nature of relationships in online communities can vary from intensely personal and deeply meaningful to those that are quite super— ficial, short—lasting, and relatively insignificant.

Online gatherings that are known for their weaker social anti-imbatranire anon scansoft and the low centrality of any particular kind of consumption activity might be known as Cruisinç conimunjtjes. Particular virtual worlds, chat—rooms, and certain gamespaces would fit well into this cruising classification.

Anti-imbatranire anon scansoft all due respect and I do mean this sincerely, since I am a member of this club I call these Geeking communities.

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Many newsgroups, website forums, social content sites and services, and blogs would be Geeking communities, offering their member and readers deeply detailed infor mation about a particular set of activities, but not deeply engaging most of them in meaningful social relationships. The modes of interaction on these communities are predominantly informational. Although blogs, wikis, Social networking sites SNS interest groups, and other forms of online gatherings could certainly be Building communities, I have seen more of these online communities grow from website forums, devoted websites, and virtual worlds.

A good example of a Building community would be the Niketalk forum devoted to anti-imbatranire anon scansoft discussions, evaluations, and even design of sports shoes and basketball sneakers see Fuller et al. Another is the open source software community, in all of its various manifestations, such as slashdot Hemetsberger and Reinhardt The mode of interaction in these types of communities is informational as well as anti-imbatranire anon scansoft.

These categories mingle and for many participants become recreational and even, for some, transformational.

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Transformation is most often actively pursued by insiders, whose social and active skills empower their online experience. However, these transformational activities, which can include resistance and activism, will also be followed by devotees whose interests and skills inspire them to take leadership positions in seeking to enact positive change.

Ethnographies of online communities and cultures are informing us about how these online formations affect notions of self, how they express the postmodern condition, and how they simultaneously liberate and constrain. They reveal the enormous diversity of online groups, from skinheads to economically privileged new anti-imbatranire anon scansoft, from youth subcultures to the elderly.

They reveal tensions between commercial orientations and power structures online and the communal forms that they promote. They tell us about the promotion of cultural transformation, and the creation of change agents. Many of these ethnographic investigations, particularly the earliest ones, have been undertaken by scholars working from within the discipline of cultural studies.

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It is somewhat surprising that more anthropologists have not conducted praguri anti-îmbătrânire elvețiene ethno graphies. She relates cyberculture to the postmodern notion of anti-imbatranire anon scansoft fragmented, multiple self as well as to a Situationist sense of voice: When we go online, the computer extends our identity into a virtual world of anti-imbatranire anon scansoft presence, and at the same time, it also incites us to take on other identities.

We lurk in, or engage with, on-line lists and usenet groups that enable different versions of ourselves to emerge dialogically. The computer, in this way, allows for a new kind of performativity, an actualization of multiple and perhaps idealized selves through text and image. He further elaborates that there is a surprisingly complex and dynamic relationship between skinhead culture online and notions of race and racism.

Studies such as this one underscore the utility perhaps even necessity of studies of online gatherings to help reveal additional nuances to our understanding of existing cultures and communities, and to demonstrate how these communities are inflecting, hybridizing, and transformed by the unique abili ties conferred by Internet connectivity.

Online communities are widespread phenomena, and their norms and rituals are shaped by the practices of cyberculture and those of the general cultural groups using then-i.

They describe a paradox in which the Internet is both liberating and constraining in the lives of those partaking in this particular community of practice. Demonstrating that the use and importance of online communities are not limited to the young or middle—aged, Kanayama asserts that elderly Japanese people beneficially partake in online community interactions with one another in a variety of ways and use diverse linguistic formats such as emoticons and haiku.

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In her study of relationships and friendships online, Carter advances the argument that some people are investing as much time and effort in online relation ships as they are in their other relationships.

In this respect cyberspace is no longer distinct and separate from the real world.

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However, the nature of relationships and friendships may be changing because of the different forms and freedoms available to us through computermediated conmiunications. Because of online communities and ICT, social relationships, she concludes, are currently in a state of transformation. However,Whitty also explores the widely reputed aspect of disembodiment online.

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She suggests that, rather than there being an absence of the body in online community interactions, the body is reconstructed or re-embodied online in differ ent ways. She also recounts the interesting combination of realistic and fantastic elements that allow for rich and playful online communication to arise.

Online communities even appear to be changing the nature anti-imbatranire anon scansoft work and work relationships.

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Gossett and Kilker undertook a study of ce reduce ridurile institutional websites, in the context of a close examination of RadioShackSucks. They assert that these sites enable and empower individuals to publicly and anonymously voice their work-based frustrations.

They do this in an anonymous and supportive envi ronment that offers them a reduced fear of retribution or termination from their jobs. There are a number of important theoretical and practical implications to the fact anti-imbatranire anon scansoft participants can use these sites to engage in voice and resistance efforts out side of the formal boundaries of various types of organizations such as human resource departments or labour unions.

Another important theme is that of the interrelationship between commercial and marketing institutions and the communities that they foster, maintain, and propose to serve through ICT. Kozinets identified several core tensions between the stigmatized Star Trek and media fan communities, their utopian and inclusive ideolo gies, and the large corporate enterprises that gathered them together for commer cial purposes in venues both physical and online.

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Kozinets and Sherry also studied these tensions between communities and the commercial organizations of wider society in the setting of the Burning Man festival and its all—year—round online community. He depicts gay Internet portals openly courting the gay community online with promises of inclu sion and an authentic communal experience. Anti-imbatranire anon scansoft, also simultaneously reposition gays and lesbians in a commercial panopticon that places them under cor porate surveillance.

It is also the case that online community participation seems to weaken the influence of existing local cultures and their embedded practices. Along these lines, Robert McDougal suggests, in a study of the introduction of e-mail among the Mohawk tribe, that members of this group considered that the technology altered what they held to be important ways of relating to the world and even to their own traditional way of life.

A salient point is raised by Olaniran He notes that: a factor mediating interaction experiences in c—tribes is the fact that members are set apart from the general population of the country of origin.

This factor creates, or at a minimum establishes, the need to conform and adopt group norms in e—tribes. The communication implication is that members must develop a new set of norms that is unique to their particular group.

Olaniranpp.

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The longer—term implications of this delocalizing trend for local communities and traditional ways of life are far from clear. Finally, online communities change the way that people seek to change their world.

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An early study concludes that environmental organizations became more politically active because of the Internet and online communities Zeiwietroand suggests that online communities have a transformational effect on their participants, allowing them to organize more effectively and to focus on the specific tasks needed for longer—term realization of their objectives.

Bolanle Olaniranp. Ethnographic inves tigations teach us about the varieties of strategies and practices used to create a communal sense and also teach us about the varieties and substance of online community participation, members, participation styles, and forms. Recent developments in ethnographic online research reveal how much online communities are changing notions of the self, systems of social support, personal and work relationships, institutional power, and social activism.

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The following chapter anti-imbatranire anon scansoft and compares various research methods used to understand the social world of online communities and cultures. This will help you evaluate these approaches before we proceed to the chapters that introduce, explain, and demonstrate the netnographic approach.

Существует несколько различных мнений относительно их соответствия истине.

Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Kozinets, Robert V. Markham, Annette N. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Walther, Joseph B. The focus and research domain of each method is compared. Question-centered guidelines help the researcher integrate these approaches with one another and with netnography.